Терминологический словарь по логистике

А :: Б :: В :: Г :: Д :: Е :: Ж :: З :: И :: К :: Л :: М :: Н :: О :: П :: Р :: С :: Т :: У :: Ф :: Х :: Ц :: Ч :: Ш :: Э :: Ю :: Я
A :: B :: C :: D :: E :: F :: G :: H :: I :: J :: L :: M :: N :: O :: P :: Q :: R :: S :: T :: U :: V :: W :: Y


An offer of goods or services, including the naming of a price, usually by those making the offer.


Term which refers to an amount of goods which a customer buys from a supplier over a certain period of time. The offtake can also be expressed in a value.

open order

A customer order which was not yet fulfilled. In an material requirement plan (MRP) system the term refers to a purchase or manufacturing order which was released (but not yet delivered).

open sided container

A container used to allow loading and unloading from the sides the container consists of frames with wire-mesh at the sides and is covered by a tarpaulin, which when it is dropped down gives unlimited access to the container.

open top container

A freight container which instead of a roof has a flexible or removable cover. Otherwise it is just like an ordinary freight container. The material of which the cover is made can be plastic or canvas.


Logistics: a single step or activity in a planning process or for control purposes. However, in a production line an operation can involve more than one physical process, for example if the assembly of several components into a finished product is considered one operation.

operation sheet

A document which determines the operations to be done on a component as well as the sequence in which these operations are to be carried out and which also gives alternative operations where possible.

operation time

The process time required for a certain operation to be performed on a product. The entirety of process time required to perform all operations on a product until its is finished and ready to be delivered. However, set-up time and breaking-down times are not included.

operational research

Analysis or investigation of a production system and the way it operates aimed at providing the management with new insights on how to best use resources.

optimized production technology

A method of production which reduces inventory at purchase price and cuts down on operating expenses, while at the same time increasing throughput (sales to client). The ultimate aim is to increase revenues. It is achieved by investigating the single operations in the manufacturing process and dividing the resources into bottle-neck and non-bottleneck resources in order to optimize capacity planning and timing.

optional cargo

Cargo whose ultimate description is not known when it is booked. It will, however, be named in the course of transport.

optional port

A port who may optionally be called at by a ship in the course of a voyage, which, however, is not certain from the start.


A commission to purchase goods or services from another party at an agreed price, usually according to certain terms of contract, such as delivery at a certain date, etc.

order acceptance

The action of accepting and confirming an order which was placed by a customer. As a prerequisite it needs to be checked whether the goods ordered are available for the date of delivery or whether the services requested can be rendered. If the goods ordered have to be manufactured, it needs to be made sure that material required and production capacity are available.

order acknowledgement

Notifying the customer that the order placed has been received by the supplier.

order book

A book which contains all open orders, i.e. those which have not been delivered or invoiced yet.

order cancellation

Notifying the supplier that an order which was placed is not valid anymore.

order change request

Request on the part of the customer to modify an order in one or more order positions.

order clearing

The action of evaluating incoming orders and elucidating any points or order positions which are unclear. The information is converted into unambiguous information so that the order can be processed.

order confirmation

The customer is informed by the supplier that the order placed was received and that he is in agreement with the terms and the order content.

order estimate

In an order estimate the customer informs the supplier on future demand which is not yet covered by the orders placed. It is binding within the terms of contract agreed upon by the parties.

order picking truck

A fork lift truck with an additional platform for the commissioner and which is raised when the fork arms are lifted. The commssioner can thus load goods onto the platform of the fork truck or unload them onto the shelves.

order planning

The action of planning the processing of orders for a certain time stretch, taking into account delivery times, capacity available and possibly harmonizing the various operations to be performed for each order.

order point

The level at which stocks are to be replenished, also reorder level. The order point is reached when the on order quantity and the stock have got to a certain minimum limit.

order point system

A system used to order independent demand products. In an order point system the quantity of the items ordered and the point in time at which they are ordered are subject to previously determined parameters. There are systems in which ordering times are variable (BQ system, BS system) and others in which ordering times are predetermined (e.g. sQ system, sT system).

order survey

The action of surveying the order situation. Subject to surveillance can be the general order situation for a period of time, or the orders placed by a particular customer or for a certain product.

order type

If an order is placed for a product which is not kept in stock but must be either ordered or produced, this product is referred to as order type.


The action of requesting a tradesman to supply goods or services under certain terms of delivery. The order should include the product(s), the amount of each product ordered, terms of delivery, etc.

ordering category

If the same terms of delivery (such as ordering frequency) apply to an entire group of products, these products belong to an ordering category.

ordering frequency

The frequency with which one or more products are ordered in an interval of time.

original equipment manufacturer (OEM)

A manufacturer who employs a method of manufacturing in which finished products by other suppliers are systematically incorporated into its own manufactured products.

out of gauge cargo

Cargo with overwidth, overlength or overheigt, i.e. which exceeds the standardized dimensions of ordinary containers (20 or 40 feet).

output handling

Term used to describe all the activities involved in handling computer outputs, such as printer errors, toner, trimming.


In transport: a shipping agent operating on a route which is normally served by a liner conference without being a member of that conference.

outturn report

A report drawn up by a stevedoring company, on which all deviations in the quantity of goods are noted down as compared to the ship´s manifest. The outturn report also notes down the condition of the cargo is found in when it is unloaded.

outward handling

A term comprising all the activities involved in handling outgoing goods, from the moment forwarding orders can be executed to the moment the goods are actually forwarded.

over pivot rate

In aircargo: the rate which is to be charged for every kilogram in over pivot weight.

over pivot weight

In aircargo: the weight which exceeds the pivot weight.

over, short and damage (OSD)

These terms are used to describe differences encountered between the content as described on the bill of lading and the goods actually delivered. Goods delivered which cannot be found on the bill of lading are termed "over"", those which are listed but not delivered are referred to as "short", while "damage" is used for damaged cargo.


The capacity which exceeds the capacity needed to sustain a normal production level. The available capacity can be used to cover peak production levels and thus increase the flexibility of a manufacturer. Or it can provide additional capacity required if a constant increase in production is forecasted for the future.


Term used to describe a load which is greater than the normal or full capacity, be it loading capacity or also production capacity.


In aircargo: the assembling of several goods / items / packages by a shipping agent to form one packaging unit, which is easier to stow or handle. If dangerous cargo is included in such a unit, this has to be marked and handled according to the rules and regulations applicable to dangerous cargo shipments.


A vessel whose dimension exceed 295m in length, 32,25m beam overall or 13,50m maximum draught.

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